(adjective) appearing earlier in the same text; “flaws in the above interpretation”
(adverb) (in writing) at an earlier place; “see above”
above, higher up, in a higher place, to a higher place
(adverb) in or to a place that is higher
(noun) an earlier section of a written text; “for instructions refer to the above”
Source: WordNet® 3.1
Physically over; on top of; worn on top of, said of clothing. [first attested before 1150.]
In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface. [first attested before 1150]
Antonyms: below, beneath
Farther north than. [first attested before 1150]
Rising; appearing out of reach height-wise. [first attested around 1150–1350]
(figuratively) Higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; higher in measure, degree, volume, or pitch, etc. than; out of reach; not exposed to; not likely to be affected by; incapable of negative actions or thoughts. [first attested around 1150–1350]
Higher in rank, status, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]
In addition to; besides. [first attested around 1150–1350]
Surpassing in number or quantity; more than. [first attested around 1350–1470]
In preference to.
Too proud to stoop to; averse to; disinclined towards;
Beyond; on the other side.
(theater) Upstage of.
• (surpassing in number or quantity): passing into the adverbial sense.
above (not comparable)
Directly overhead; vertically on top of. [first attested before 1150.]
Higher in the same page; earlier in the order as far as writing products go. [first attested before 1150.]
Into or from heaven; in the sky. [first attested around 1150–1350]
In a higher place; upstairs; farther upstream. [first attested around 1150–1350]
Higher in rank, power, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]
(archaic) In addition. [first attested around 1150–1350]
More in number. [first attested around 1350–1470]
Above zero; above freezing. [first attested in the mid 20th century.]
(biology) On the upper half or the dorsal surface of an animal.
above (not comparable)
Of heaven; heavenly. [first attested around (1150 to 1350).]
(by ellipsis) Being located higher on the same page or on a preceding page. [first attested in the mid 18th century.]
• Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word said, mentioned, quoted, or the like
the above(-said) observations
the above(-cited) reference
the above(-quoted) articles
Heaven. [first attested around 1150–1350]
Something, especially a person's name in legal documents, that appears higher on the same page or on a preceding page.
(archaic) betterment, raised status or condition.
The preposition above is often used further elliptically as a noun by omitting the associated noun, where it is should be clear what is omitted: e.g. See the above.
A*bove", prep. Etym: [OE. above, aboven, abuffe, AS. abufon; an (or on) on + be by + ufan upward; cf. Goth. uf under. *199. See Over.]
1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface; over; -- opposed to below or beneath. Fowl that may fly above the earth. Gen. i. 20.
2. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; beyond; higher in measure or degree than; as, things above comprehension; above mean actions; conduct above reproach. "Thy worth . . . is actions above my gifts." Marlowe. I saw in the way a light from heaven above the brightness of the sun. Acts xxxvi. 13.
3. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a hundred. (Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above, adv., 4.) above all, before every other consideration; chiefly; in preference to other things. Over and above, prep. or adv., besides; in addition to.
1. In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, the clouds above.
2. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a foregoing page. "That was said above." Dryden.
3. Higher in rank or power; as, he appealed to the court above.
4. More than; as, above five hundred were present.
Note: Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word mentioned, quoted, or the like; as, the above observations, the above reference, the above articles.
– Above is also used substantively. "The waters that come down from above." Josh. iii. 13. It is also used as the first part of a compound in the sense of before, previously; as, above-cited, above- described, above-mentioned, above-named, abovesaid, abovespecified, above-written, above-given.
Source: Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary 1913 Edition
1 December 2023
(noun) a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings; “Jewish theology”; “Roman Catholic theology”
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