ABOVE

above

(adjective) appearing earlier in the same text; “flaws in the above interpretation”

above, supra

(adverb) (in writing) at an earlier place; “see above”

above, higher up, in a higher place, to a higher place

(adverb) in or to a place that is higher

above

(noun) an earlier section of a written text; “for instructions refer to the above”

Source: WordNet® 3.1


Etymology

Preposition

above

Physically over; on top of; worn on top of, said of clothing. [first attested before 1150.]

In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface. [first attested before 1150]

Antonyms: below, beneath

Farther north than. [first attested before 1150]

Rising; appearing out of reach height-wise. [first attested around 1150–1350]

(figuratively) Higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; higher in measure, degree, volume, or pitch, etc. than; out of reach; not exposed to; not likely to be affected by; incapable of negative actions or thoughts. [first attested around 1150–1350]

Higher in rank, status, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]

In addition to; besides. [first attested around 1150–1350]

Surpassing in number or quantity; more than. [first attested around 1350–1470]

In preference to.

Too proud to stoop to; averse to; disinclined towards;

Beyond; on the other side.

(theater) Upstage of.

Usage notes

• (surpassing in number or quantity): passing into the adverbial sense.

Adverb

above (not comparable)

Directly overhead; vertically on top of. [first attested before 1150.]

Higher in the same page; earlier in the order as far as writing products go. [first attested before 1150.]

Into or from heaven; in the sky. [first attested around 1150–1350]

In a higher place; upstairs; farther upstream. [first attested around 1150–1350]

Higher in rank, power, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]

(archaic) In addition. [first attested around 1150–1350]

More in number. [first attested around 1350–1470]

Above zero; above freezing. [first attested in the mid 20th century.]

(biology) On the upper half or the dorsal surface of an animal.

Adjective

above (not comparable)

Of heaven; heavenly. [first attested around (1150 to 1350).]

(by ellipsis) Being located higher on the same page or on a preceding page. [first attested in the mid 18th century.]

Usage notes

Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word said, mentioned, quoted, or the like

the above(-said) observations

the above(-cited) reference

the above(-quoted) articles

Noun

above (uncountable)

Heaven. [first attested around 1150–1350]

Something, especially a person's name in legal documents, that appears higher on the same page or on a preceding page.

Higher authority.

(archaic) betterment, raised status or condition.

Usage notes

The preposition above is often used further elliptically as a noun by omitting the associated noun, where it is should be clear what is omitted: e.g. See the above.

Source: Wiktionary


A*bove", prep. Etym: [OE. above, aboven, abuffe, AS. abufon; an (or on) on + be by + ufan upward; cf. Goth. uf under. *199. See Over.]

1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface; over; -- opposed to below or beneath. Fowl that may fly above the earth. Gen. i. 20.

2. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; beyond; higher in measure or degree than; as, things above comprehension; above mean actions; conduct above reproach. "Thy worth . . . is actions above my gifts." Marlowe. I saw in the way a light from heaven above the brightness of the sun. Acts xxxvi. 13.

3. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a hundred. (Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above, adv., 4.) above all, before every other consideration; chiefly; in preference to other things. Over and above, prep. or adv., besides; in addition to.

A*bove", adv.

1. In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, the clouds above.

2. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a foregoing page. "That was said above." Dryden.

3. Higher in rank or power; as, he appealed to the court above.

4. More than; as, above five hundred were present.

Note: Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word mentioned, quoted, or the like; as, the above observations, the above reference, the above articles.

– Above is also used substantively. "The waters that come down from above." Josh. iii. 13. It is also used as the first part of a compound in the sense of before, previously; as, above-cited, above- described, above-mentioned, above-named, abovesaid, abovespecified, above-written, above-given.

Source: Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary 1913 Edition



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Word of the Day

7 October 2022

GOLDENSEAL

(noun) perennial herb of northeastern United States having a thick knotted yellow rootstock and large rounded leaves


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Coffee Trivia

In 1511, leaders in Mecca believed coffee stimulated radical thinking and outlawed the drink. In 1524, the leaders overturned that order, and people could drink coffee again.

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